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Scotlands History – A short Chronology
Scotlands History – A short Chronology

Scotlands History – A short Chronology

Scone Palace

In todays post I will put together a chronology of some of Scotlands history in regards of who was king or queen.

Before the first King’s:

10,000 BC: end of last Ice Age

7000 BC: Mesolithic Age; hunter-gatherers on the island of Rum

3500 BC: Neolithic Age

3100-2600 BC: Neolithic village of Skara Brae (Orkney)

3000 BC: Chambered tomb of Maes Howe (Orkney)

3000-2000 BC: Megalithic standing stones at Calanais (Isle of Lewis)

600 BC: Iron Age starts

500 BC: ‘Oakbank Crannog’ built in Loch Tay

200 BC – 200 AD: Broch-building

55-54 BC: Julius Caesar invades Britain

80 AD: Agricola invades Lowlands of Scotland

84: Battle of Mons Graupius

122: Hadrian starts building Hadrian’s Wall

140-180: Antonine Wall in Scotland

214: The Romans abandon Scotland

297: First reference to ‘Picti’

367: The ‘Barbarian Conspiracy’; Hadrian’s Wall overrun

410: The Romans abandon Britain

500: ‘Scoti’ colonise Dalriada (Argyll); Dunadd

c. 550: St. Ninian comes to Whithorn (Galloway)

563: St. Columba comes to Scotland and the island of Iona

580: Pictish king Bridei mac Máelchú at Craig Phadrig

590: Urien of Rheged assassinated on Lindisfarne

c. 600: The Gododdin defeated at Catterick

603: Áedán, king of Dalriada, defeated by the Anglians

638: Angles from Northumbria capture Edinburgh

685: Battle of Dunnichen: the Picts defeat the Northumbrians

750: Battle of Athelstaneford (St Andrews)

793: Start of the viking age: raid on the Holy Isle of Lindisfarne

795: First viking raid on the island of Iona

840 – 858: Kenneth I (mac Alpin)

c. 840: Kenneth mac Alpin unites Pictland and Dalriada a Alba

849: Iona abandoned; treasures moved to Dunkeld

858: Death of Kenneth I (mac Alpin)

858 – 862: Donald I

860: Norse earldom established in Orkney ans Shetland

862 – 877: Constantin I

870: Vikings storm Dumbarton Castle

874: Norwegian settlers colonise Iceland

877 – 878: Aed

878 – 889: Eochaid

889 – 900: Donald II

890: Vikings storm Dunnottar Castle

900 – 943: Constantin II

900-943: Constantin II rules ‘Scotland’

937: Constantin II and his allies defeated at Brunanburh

943 – 954: Malcolm I
954 -962: Indulph

1005 – 1034: Malcolm II

1018: Malcolm II defeats the Northumbrians at Carham; death of Owain the Bald, last native king of Strathclyde

1034: Dearh of Malcolm II; accession of Duncan I

1034 – 1040: Duncan I

1040: Macbeth defeats and kills Duncan I

1040 – 1057: Macbeth

1050: Macbeath goes on pilgrimage to Rome

1057: Macbeth killed by Malcolm Canmore at Lumphanan

1057 – 1058: Lulach

1058: Macbeath’s stepson, Lulach, killed by Malcolm Canmore; Malcolm Canmore (Malcolm III) becomes King of Alba

1058 – 1093: Malcolm III (‘Canmore’)

1061: Malcolm III invades Northumbria

c. 1070: Malcolm III marries Margaret of England (St Margaret)

1072: William I invades Scotland; Malcolm III submits

1093: Malcolm III killed at Alnwick; death of St Margaret; Donald III (Malcolm’s younger brother) seizes the throne, but is soon murdered

1094: Donald III

1094: Duncan II

1094 – 1097: Donald III (restored)

1097 – 1107: Edgar (‘The Peaceable’)

1097: Edgar, Malcolm’s eldest surviving son, becomes king

1107 – 1124: Alexander I (‘The Fierce’)

1107: Alexander I (Edgar’s brother) succeeds to the throne

Pentland Hills

1124 – 1153: David I

1124: David I, Alexander’s brother, succeeds to the throne

1138: David I defeated at Battle of the Standard

1153: Death of David I; Malcolm IV, his grandson, succeeds

1153 – 1165: Malcolm IV (‘The Maiden’)

1165: Death of Malcolm IV; William (‘The Lion’), his brother, succeeds

1165 – 1214: William (‘The Lion’)

1174: William captured by the English at Alnwick; Treaty of Falaise: William pays homage for Scotland

1178: William founds Arbroath Abbey

1189: The ‘Quitclaim of Canterbury’ abrogates Falaise Treaty

1214: Death of William the Lion; his son Alexander II succeeds

1214 – 1249: Alexander II

1221: Alexander II marries Joan, sister of Henry III of England

1230: Norwegian expedition to the Western Isles

1237: Treaty of York: Alexnder renounces claims in England

1239: Alexander II marries Marie de Coucy, of France

1244: Alexander II’s infant son Alexander betrothed to Margaret of England

1249: Alexander II mounts an expedition to the Hebrides, dies; Alexander III succeeds, aged seven

1249 – 1286: Alexander III

1251: Alexander III marries Margaret, sister of Henry III

1263: ‘Battle of Largs’

1266: Norway cedes the Western Isles to Scotland

1272: Edward I comes to the throne in England

1281: Alexander III’s daughter Margaret marries Erik of Norway

1283: Birth of Margaret, the ‘Maid of Norway’

1284: Death of Alexander III’s son and heir, Alexander; the Maid of Norway declared heir-presumptive

1285: Alexander III marries Yolande, Comtesse de Montford

1286: Death of Alexander III; Margaret, the Maid of Norway, declared Queen of Scots

1286 – 1290: Margaret (‘The Maid of Norway’)

1290: Margaret betrothed to Edward I’s son, Edward; death of Margaret

1292 – 1296: John Balliol (‘Toom Tabard’)

1292: Edward I nominates John Balliol as King of Scots

1295: Treaty of Paris – the ‘Auld Alliance’ with France

1296: Edward I invades Scotland, deposes Balliol

1297: William Wallace rebels against the English occupation; Battle of Stirling Bridge: Wallace defeats an English army

1298: Wallace defeated at Battle of Falkirk; John Comyn and Robert Bruce appointed guardians

1302: Robert Bruce defects to Edward I

1304: Scotland submits to Edward I

1305: Wallace captured, and executed in London

1306 – 1329: Robert I (‘Robert Bruce’)

1306: Robert Bruce murders John Comyn; Bruce crowned King of Scots; Bruce defeated at Battle of Methven

1307: Bruce emerges from hiding, starts a comeback; death of Edward I

1314: Bruce defeats Edward II at Bannockburn

1320: The Declaration of Arbroath

1327: Edward II deposed

1328: Edward III recognises Scotland’s independence; Bruce’s son David marries Joan, sister of Edward III

1329: Death of Robert Bruce

1329 – 1371: David II

1331: David II crowned King of Scots

1332: Edward Balliol invades Scotland, usurps the throne

1333: Edward III defeats the Scots at Halidon Hill; David II and Joan sent to France for safety

1338: ‘Black Agnes’ defends Dunbar Castle

1341: David II returns to Scotland and starts his personal rule

1346: David II captured at Battle of Neville’s Cross

1357: David II released and returns to Scotland

1371: David II dies, childless; Robert Stewart, his nephew, succeeds as Robert II

1371 – 1390: Robert II

1384: Robert II demits power to his brother John

1388: Battle of Otterburn

1390: The ‘Wolf of Badenoch’ burns Elgin Cathedral; death of Robert II; John succeeds as Robert II

1390 – 1406: Robert III

1396: Battle on the Inch

1401: Duke of Albany kidnaps David, Duke of Rothesay

1402: Rothesay dies during his imprisonment

1406: Robert III’s son James flees to France, is captured by the English; death of Robert III; James I succeeds, while a prisoner in England

1406 – 1437: James I

1411: Battle of Harlaw

1424: James I marries Joan Beaufort, is released and crowned

1425: James I destroys the Albany family

1437: James I assassinated; James II succeeds at the age of six

1437 – 1460: James II

1440: The ‘Black Dinner’ in Edinburgh; Douglas beheaded

1449: James II marries Marie de Gueldres

1452: James murders William Douglas

1455: Wars of the Roses break out in England

1460: James II killed by an exploding cannon; James III succeeds at the age of nine

1460 – 1488: James III

1463: Death of James III’s mother, Marie de Gueldres

1469: James marries Margrethe of Denmark

1482: The Lauder Lynchings; James III arrested

1488: James III dies after Battle of Sauchieburn; James IV succeeds

1488 – 1513: James IV

1503: James IV marries Margaret Tudor

1511: Launch of the Great Michael

1513: James IV killed at Battle of Flodden; James V succeeds at the age of seventeen months

1513 – 1542: James V

1515: Duke of Albany apppointed regent

1517: Martin Luther launches the Reformation in Germany

1526: James V ‘captured’ by the Earl of Angus

1528: James ‘escapes’

1537: Execution of Lady Glamis; James V marries Madeleine of France

1538: James V marries Marie de Guise

1542: Birth of Mary Queen of Scots; Scots defeated at Battle of Solway Moss; death of James V; Mary succeeds at the age of one week

Scone Palace

1542 – 1567: Mary (‘Queen of Scots’)

1543: Mary crowned Queen of Scots; betrothal of Mary to Prince Edward of England fails

1544: Start of the ‘Rough Wooing’

1546: George Wishart burned for heresy

1547: John Knox captured and sentenced to the galleys; defeat of the Scots at Battle of Pinkie

1548: Mary betrothed to the Dauphin and sails to France

1557: ‘Lords of the Congregation’ support the Reformation

1558: Mary marries the Dauphin; Elizabeth becomes Queen of England

1559: Mary becomes Queen of France as the wife of Francois II; John Knox inflames the mob with a sermon in Perth

1560: Mary is widowed; death of Mary’s mother, Marie de Guise; parliament accepts the Reformation in Scotland

1561: Mary returns to Scotland, and is berated by John Knox

1565: Mary marries Henry, Lord Darnley

1566: Murder of David Rizzio

1567: Murder of Darnley; Mary marries the Earl of Bothwell; Mary surrenders at Carberry Hill; Mary deposed; James VI crowned king

1567 – 1626: James VI (from 1603 James I of England)

1568: Mary escapes from Lochleven; Mary defeated at Langside, flees to England; ‘trial’ of Mary in England

1570 – 1573: Civil war in Scotland

1572: Death of John Knox

1582: The ‘Ruthven Raid’: the kidnap of James VI

1583: James escapes

1586: The Babington Plot

1587: Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1589: James VI marries Anne of Denmark

1592: Death of the ‘Bonnie Earl of Moray’

1600: The ‘Gowrie Conspiracy’

1603: Union of the Crowns; James VI becomes James I of England

1604: James VI & I proposes a full inion of the United Kingdom

1605: The ‘Powder Treason Plot’

1611: The ‘King James Bible’

1617: James VI & I pays his only visit to Scotland as king

1625: Death of James VI & I; Charles I succeeds; Charles I marries Henrietta Maria of France

Chapel at Scone Palace

After the Union of the Crowns:

1633: Charles I crowned in Edinburgh

1637: The ‘Jenny Geddes’ riot against the Prayer Book

1638: The National Covenant launched and signed

1639-1640: The ‘Bishops’ Wars’

1641: Charles I visits Edinburgh

1642: Charles I declares war on Parliament

1643: The Solemn League and Covenant

1644: Scottish troops at Battle of Marston Moor; Montrose starts his great campain

1645: Montrose defeats the Campbells at Inverlochy; Montrose defeated at Philiphaugh

1646: Charles I surrenders to the Scots at Newark

1648: ‘The Engagement’ forces defeated by Cromwell; the ‘Whiggamores Raid’

1649: Execution of Charles I

1650: Montrose invades the north of Scotland, is captured and executed; Charles II lands in Scotland; Cromwell defeats the Scots at Battle of Dunbar

1651: Charles II crowned by the Scots at Scone; Charles II defeated at Worcester, and escapes to France; the rescue of the Scottish Regalia at Dunnottar Castle

1652: Cromwell ‘incorporates’ Scotland

1658: Death of Cromwell

1660: Restoration of Charles II

1661: Execution of the Marquis of Argyll

1666: The ‘Pentland Rising’

1677: William of Orange marries James VII’s daughter Mary

1679: Archbishop Sharp murdered by Covenanters; Battle of Drumclog; Battle of Bothwell Brig

1680: James, Duke of York, comes to Scotland

1682-1685: The ‘Killing Time’

1685: Death of Charles II; James VII & II succeeds

1688: Birth of James Stuart, the ‘Old Pretender’; William of Orange lands in England: the ‘Glorious Revolution’; James VII & II flees to France

1689: William and Mary crowned in England; William and Mary accept the crown of Scotland; ‘Bonnie Dundee’ wins Battle of Killiecrankie but is killed; Battle of Dunkeld

1690: James VII & II defeated at Battle of the Boyne

1692: Massacre of Glencoe

1694: Death of Queen Mary

1698-1700: The Darien expedition

1701: Death of James VII & II in exile

1702: Death of King William; accession of Queen Anne

1704: Scotland’s parliament passes the Act of Security

1705: England’s parliament passes the Alien Act

1706: Joint Parliamentary Commission on Union

1707: Act of Union passed

1708: First Jacobite Rising fails

1714: Death of Queen Anne; George I succeeds

1715: The 1715 Rising; Battle of Sheriffmuir

1716: The ‘Old Pretender’ returns to France

1717: The ‘Old Pretender’ marries Clementina Sobieska

1719: The 1719 Rising; Battle of Glenshiel

1720: Birth of charles Edward Stuart, ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’

1725: General Wade comes to Scotland to build military roads

1736: The Porteous Riot

1745: Prince Charles lands in Scotland; the ’45 Rising; Battle of Prestonpans; the march to Derby, and the retreat

1746: Battle of Falkirk Muir; Battle of Culloden; Prince Charles escapes to France

1746-1782: Act of Prescription bans Highland dress and language

1771: Birth of Walter Scott

1789: French Revolution

1802: The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border

1805: The Lay of the Last Minstel

1808: Marmion

1810: The Lady of the Lake

1811: Scott starts to build Abbotsford

1814: Waverley

1815: End of Napoleonic Wars

1818: Scott rediscovers the Scottish Crown Jewels

1819-1820: ‘Radical Wars’ in Scotland

1820: Cato Street Conspiracy

1822: Royal visit of George IV to Edinburgh

1824: Redgauntlet

1826: Scott’s financial cras

1827-1829: Tales of a Grandfather

1831: History of Scotland

1831: Scott booed at Jedburgh

1831: First Reform Bill passed

1832: Death of Walter Scott

1838: ‘People’s Charter’ – the rise of Chartism

1846: Scott Monument in Edinburgh completed

1853: National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights

1885: Scottish Office established in London

1900: Liberal Party’s Young Scots Society founded

1914: Home Rule Bill lapses at the start of World War I

1919: ‘Red Clydesiders’ riot in Glasgow

1922: ‘Red Clydesiders’ elected to Parliament

1924: Home Rule Bill ‘talked out’

1928: National Party of Scotland founded

1932: Scottish Party founded

1934: Scottish National Party (SNP) founded

1939: St Andrew’s House opens in Edinburgh

1942: SNP splits; McCormick founds ‘Scottish Convention’

1945: SNP wins the Motherwell and Wishaw by-election

1949: National Covenant launched

1950: Young nationalists abuct the Stone of Destiny from Westminster Abbey

1967: Winnie Ewing wins Hamilton by-election for the SNP

1968: Ted Heath makes ‘Declaration of Perth’

1974: SNP wins eleven parliamentary seats

1978: Scotland Act 1978 passed

1979: (1 March) Scotland referendum; (May) general election: SNP loses nine parliamentary seats

1988: Marco MacDonald wins Govan by-election for SNP; A Claim of Right for Scotland published

1989: Scottish Constitutional Convention begins

1994: Death of John Smith

1996: Stone of Destiny returns to Scotland

1997: Referendum on a parliament for Scotland

1998: Scotland Act 1998 passed

1999: (May) Elections for Scotland’s parliament; (1 July) Royal opening of Scotland’s new parliament

That is a lot that happened and of course even more what didn’t get listed here.
I hope this chronology is usefull for you since it splits everything up at least a little bit.

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